The phenomena of the reflection and refraction of light have been known since the ancient times. Untill now, the essence of these phenomena and their true nature are not obvious to the official science, everything is based on theory of probability.
In scientific literature of today the quantum of an electromagnetic field is called a photon, supposedly, an elementary particle, which, in the light of contemporary theories, is seemed to be a carrier of electromagnetic interaction. However, in fact, the modern name "photon" only implies the observed process - the lowest "portions", "beams" of light, constituting the waves of electromagnetic radiation, including the visible light, radio waves, X-rays, laser pulses and so on.
The notion of a photon (from the Ancient Greek word "φωτός" (photos) "light") was introduced in 1926 by an American chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis. By the way, he considered photons as being "not generated and not capable of destruction” (it is similar to a story of introduction of the notion of atom by the chemist John Dalton who based his considerations, relying on the ancient knowledge about the indivisible particles).
Today the photon is denoted in physics by a symbol of the Greek letter gamma γ. Such a denotation is connected with a discovery of the gamma radiation in 1900, consisting of high-energy photons. It was discovered by a French physicist Paul Villard in the course of research of radium emitting in a strong magnetic field. Subsequently, an English physicist Ernest Reserford who earlier gave names to two types of radiation of uranium as alpha and beta rays, established that the new type of radiation discovered by Villard possessed a great penetrating power. He named this type of radiation as "gamma rays".
"In the scientific article in 1926, Gilbert Lewis writes: "… we are dealing here with a new type of atom, an identifiable entity, uncreatable and indestructible, which acts as the carrier of radiant energy and, after absorption, persists as an essential constituent of the absorbing atom until it is later sent out again bearing a new amount of energy… I therefore take the liberty of proposing for this hypothetical new atom, which is not light but plays an essential part in every process of radiation, the name photon…” An interesting fact is that Gilbert Lewis considered a photon to be "a carrier of energy of emitting/radiation", but not the energy itself (nowadays physicists consider photon to be a carrier of electromagnetic force).
References: Lewis, Gilbert N. The conservation of photons Nature 118, 1926. P. 874–875; Lewis, Gilbert N. The nature of light. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 12, 1926. P. 22-29; Roychoudhuri, Chandra, Kracklauer, A.F., Creath, Kathy. The Nature of Light: What is a Photon? CRC Press, 2008..
The discovery of a photon considerably stimulated the development of theoretical and experimental physics, including physical chemistry (photochemistry), quantum mechanics, etc. People began to understand to some extent and use the manifestations of such physical phenomena as electricity, stream of photons, etc. However, the knowledge about the smallest structure of these phenomena is approximate as the official science still can't explain what exactly electron or photon itself consists of. (though this knowledge of a true nature of a microcosm was available in a high antiquity).
The nature of photon remains a mystery to scientists. But even relying on the results of researches that are fixed in the process of observation, thanks to experiments, the discoveries were made that found a wide application in life of society. Various technical devices have been invented, the main functioning of which is connected with use of photons. For example, computer tomography, quantum generator (maser), laser and so on. The laser has a wide practical application in industry, medicine, everyday life, starting from the creation of physical devices of high-precision as seismographs, gravimeters, laser scalpels employed in microsurgery, including the development of technological processes of welding, cutting of metals, household laser printers and so on. Photons are also used in the spectral analysis (the nuclear spectroscopy studies the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation of atoms). Due to the studies of photons scientists found out that atoms of each chemical element have strictly defined resonant frequencies. They emit and absorb the light (photons) within the limits of these frequencies. That is just as each person has the individual fingerprints, so as each chemical element has its unique spectrum of radiation and absorption. And all these facts constitute only the beginning of the study of such a unique structure as photon, that is actively involved in various power processes and interactions in the nature.
All the theoretical physics of the elementary particles is based on the theory of probability. However, the analysis of the objective grounds of the probability theory was actively discussed only during the creation of quantum mechanics. Now physicists discuss the theory of probability not so vividly. On the one hand, everyone recognizes that it lies in the basis of the micro-processes, but, on the other hand, - in the course of the experiments a little has been said about the probability theory, as if it plays a secondary role. In particular, it concerns the physics of elementary particles where the ideas about probability are mostly concealed under the characteristics of internal conditions and properties of elementary particles. As one of the founders of quantum electrodynamics, an American scientist Richard Feynman said: “Try as we might to invent a reasonable theory that can explain how a photon “makes up its mind” whether to go through glass or bounce back, it is impossible to predict which way a given photon will go. Philosophers have said that if the same circumstances don’t always produce the same results, predictions are impossible and science will collapse. Here is a circumstance— identical photons are always coming down in the same direction to the same piece of glass—that produces different results. We cannot predict whether a given photon will arrive at A or B. All we can predict is that out of 100 photons that come down, an average of 4 will be rejected by the front surface. Does this mean that physics, a science of great exactitude, has been reduced to calculating only the probability of an event and not predicting exactly what will happen? Yes." By the way, the mentioned photons problem is still an unresolved issue only for the official science. For the scientists of ALLATRA SCIENCE group this question has been solved a long time ago.
References: Философские проблемы физики элементарных частиц (тридцать лет спустя). Отв. Ред. Ю.Б. Молчанов.[Philosophical problems of elementary particles physics (thirty years later).Edited by U.B.Molchanov] Moscow, 1994 [In Russian]; Фейнман Р. КЭД ‒ странная теория света и вещества. [Feinman,R. QED – strange theory of light and matter] Moscow, 1988[In Russian].
But what is in fact a photon and an electron, what do these structures consist of? By what type of its constituent the photon is stable and participates in power interactions? Why doesn’t this, a so-called "massless elementary particle" in modern physics, have the electric charge? Why photon is one of the smallest and the most widespread elementary particles in the Universe? Nowadays, the official science can't answer these questions, because photon still, despite the accumulated experimental material, remains for it a mysterious elementary particle. But this situation is easy to rectify. Possessing the knowledge about the foundations of the PRIMORDIAL ALLATRA PHYSICS even a schoolboy will be able to find answers to these questions.
IN FACT THE PHOTON if to consider it as a genuine elementary particle consists of phantom Po particles. A photon can exist in two states: THE PHOTON-3 (γ3) and THE PHOTON-4 (γ4). Most of the photons consist of 3 phantom Po particles (photon-3). However, under certain conditions each of these photons can transform itself into the photon consisting of 4 phantom Po particles (photon-4), and photon-4 can transform itself into photon-3. According to its state, photon can perform the functions either of power particle (photon-3), or the "information" particle (photon-4), namely, in the latter case act as a carrier of the information about the elementary particle with which it interacts. It is noteworthy, that photon, moving in ezoosmic grid, has more accelerated spiral rotation of its phantom Po particles than that of the phantom Po particles of many other elementary particles. Due to such accelerated “whirls” of photon structure, the speed of its movement is higher in comparison with the speed of many other elementary particles.
Photon-3 and photon-4 usually move in one energy stream, and, it is noteworthy, that the amount of photons-3 is always many times higher than of photons-4. For example, the sun generates a stream of photons, where most of them are power photons (photons-3) that are responsible for energy and power interactions, however, there are also ‘information’ photons (photon-4) among them, carrying information about the sun. The streams of photons-3 do not carry heat, they generate it by destructing the particles they hit on the way. The greater is the flux of photons-3, which are directed at a right angle to a material object, the more heat is generated. Due to the information photons (photons-4) a human being, for example, is capable of seeing the sun light and the sun itself, and due to the power photons (photon-3), he feels the heat from the sun and so on. That is to say, the energy stream and various power interactions in the material world are provided by the photons-3, and due to photons-4 the delivery of information is effectuated in this particular energy stream (that is the participation in the processes, allowing for example, a human being, to see the surrounding world).
PHOTON – 3 consists of three phantom Po particles, namely, of two phantom Po particles, which are connected to each other by allat phantom Po particle. Exactly the inclusion of allat phantom Po particle in the composition of a photon makes it unique, stable and active participant in power interactions. By the way, allat phantom Po particle will never be on the place of the first head phantom Po particle in any elementary particle, which has it in its composition. Allat phantom Po particle is always located inside the elementary particle between phantom Po particles as the power base of a given particle.
Photon-3 can transform itself into photon-4, and photon-4 can transform itself into the state of photon- 3. How does the process work? The Photon (namely, photon-3 and photon-4) has a unique structure that distinguishes it from any other elementary particle. In particular, it has an unusual first (head) phantom Po particle. If the appropriate conditions arise in the ezoosmic cell that two head phantom Po particles enter it simultaneously from two opposite directions,(one of which belongs to the photon, and another one to another elementary particle) and they converge to a maximum extent, the following process takes place.
The head phantom Po particle of the photon due to its high speed in reference to the speed of head phantom Po particle of another elementary particle, rapidly rotates. Thus, it enables the power particle of a photon (allat phantom Po particle), running behind it, to capture from the oncoming elementary particle its head phantom Po particle which is the bearer of all the information about this particular elementary particle.
Photon-3, capturing the head phan¬tom Po particle of another elementa¬ry particle, appends this information particle to its structure. As a result, photon-3 is converted into photon-4 consisting of four phantom Po particles. Hereby, that elementary particle, from which the head phantom Po particle was withdrawn, undergoes a destruction, as a result of which the energy is released. In general, such a process of seizing the information by the photon occurs only in the case if exactly a head phantom Po particle of elementary particle passes through this ezoosmic cell, and not other phantom Po particles, that comprise the elementary particle.
When photon-3 knocks the head phantom Po particle out of the elementary particle it turns from "invader" into "transporter", namely, a carrier of information (photon-4). Recalling the associative example with a train and wagons, this is just like a train of three wagons, moving at full speed and capturing a locomotive from an oncoming train. Hence, it turns into a train with two locomotives, one diplomatic wagon and one ordinary wagon until conditions arise in which it will be able to get rid of the locomotive that has been captured into its structure. The remaining wagons of the oncoming train, deprived of the locomotive, are disbanded in depot (the ezoosmic membrane).
PHOTON – 4 consists of four phantom Po particles: a unique head phantom Po particle, a ”borrowed” head phantom Po particle (information particle), an Allat phantom Po particle and a closing phantom Po particle. Namely the inclusion of this ”borrowed” head phantom Po particle in the composition of the photon- 4, makes its content full of information, that is, carrying information about this (”borrowed”), elementary particle. In general, when there is a plenty of such photons, they carry the information about a particular subject, object, phenomenon and so on. Photon exists in this particular state (photon-4) until similar conditions arise in ezoosmic cell again, when it is released from the ”borrowed” head phantom Po particle, i.e. the process of "information reset" occurs. Thus, the head phantom Po particle rotates again, and due to participation of Allat power Po particle in this process, extrusion of the ”borrowed” head phantom Po particle within the limits of the own septon field of the oncoming head phantom Po particle of the elementary particle takes place. The photon itself, having undergone the transformation into a state of the photon- 3, leaves the ezoosmic cell. The released head phantom Po particle discards information into the own septon field of the real Po particle and into the septon field of the passing head phantom Po particle of the elementary particle (thus enriching their inner potential with the new information) and irretrievably goes into the ezoosmic membrane.
After resetting (transfer) of ”borrowed” head phantom Po particle that carries the information, photon- 4 turns again into photon-3, that is, goes into its original state in which the multi-variability of different actions is inherent to it. For example, photon-3 can take part in other interactions, make up the elementary particles, and so on. It can disappear (due to ezoosmic membrane) in one place and appear in another place, that is, move in ezoosmic grid at the long ("space") distances almost instantly. Certainly, this is just conсise information about the photon, intended for the initial acquaintance. Besides, there is a lot of unique information obtained in the course of research on regularities and paradoxes of photon behavior patterns in different environments, peculiarities of its wave properties; interactions with other elementary particles, algorithms of control of the photon behavior and much more.
In general, summing up the above information, it can be said that the main function of photon-3 is the energy interactions that are mainly related to the process of destruction of the matter and the release of energy, and the main function of photon-4 is information interactions that are related to the transfer of information. Possessing the knowledge about the functions and peculiarities of photon, the principles of its interaction with other elementary particles and especially with the septon field, it is possible to understand many of the processes of macro- and micro-world in which it is directly involved. Due to this knowledge, it is possible to find answers to many questions. For example, how does a human being actually perceive visual information? What is really a shadow, heat or cold, if to view these processes at the level of ezoosmic grid? As a result of what underlying reasons the destruction of matter that is under a long-term influence of sunlight occurs? What are the peculiarities of photon connection with the gravitational and electromagnetic field? And much more. The knowledge about photon assists in understanding of the root cause of this or that action, that is performed due to involvement of the photon in it, and allows conducting more accurate calculations of photon interactions without using the expensive equipment and machinery.
One of the key philosophical texts of Daosism, called “Lieh Tzu” (I-III cc. AD), has the following lines about the Absolute , how the world which received its name comes from unnamed absolute unity.
In the beginning there was the great Simplicity,
then the Great Origin appeared,
then the Great Basis appeared,
and after, the great Substantiality appeared.
There was still no breath in the Great Simplicity.
Great Origin was the beginning of breath,
Great Basis was the beginning of all material forms.
Great Substantiality was the beginning of all things.
Breath, Form and Substance were still not separated from one another, that is called Chaos. Look inside and you will not see, listen to it and you will not hear. Its name is “Simplicity”. The Simple has no form, no limits. Having undergone a transformation it becomes One, and from One it becomes Seven, and Seven was transformed into Nine. Here all transformations end and come again to One. And this One is the beginning of transformation of all forms. The pure and subtle went up and formed the Sky, the dirty and heavy went down and formed the Earth, and breath, having pervaded the first and the second, gave birth to a human being. Thus the Sky and the Earth embraced the seed of all living things and everything came to life.
There are the following lines in the ancient Chinese text “Tao Te Ching”(Chapter 42): “Tao gave birth to One. One gave birth to Two. Two gave birth to Three. And Three gave birth – to all things. Every substance carries the yin and embraces the yang”.
References: Чжуан-цзы. Ле-цзы. Перевод Малявина В. В. Философское наследие. В 3-х томах. [Zhuangzi. Liezi. Translated by V.V. Malyavin. Philosophical heritage in 3 volumes.] Moscow: Mysl, 1995 [In Russian]; Дао-Дэ цзин: Книга о Пути жизни / сост. и перевод В. В. Малявина. [Tao Te Ching: Book about Life Path/ edited and translated by V.V. Malyavin] Moscow: Feoriya, 2010 [In Russian]; Werner, Edward T.C. Myths and Legends of China. George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. London Bombay Sydney, 1922.
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