Verification of known formulas and reactions

Due to the knowledge of the PRIMORDIAL ALLATRA PHYSICS, it is possible today to verify different reactions and formulas by the easy and available means, without resorting to costly experiments, basically, as the same way these calculations were conducted in ancient times. Having this information, it is possible to compute any reaction, for example, of the nuclear disintegration or fusion, to identify inconsistencies and find the right solution. Let us consider the available and understandable example of such calculation, using the knowledge about the quantitative composition of the phantom Po particles in the currently known elementary particles.


 

First, let’s make a little journey into the basics of modern nuclear physics. As a result of development of modern science we got a lot of indirect evidence of complex structure of atomic nucleus and we got an understanding of common nature of structural elements of all known atoms. The nucleus of the atom turned out to be strong enough, well protected against external influences with the electron shell of an atom. It was found out that the pressure up to the thousands of atmospheres deforms the outer electron shell only to a slight extent. Moreover, heating to several thousand degrees results in only partial ionization of an atom. The same partial ionization is observed in the electric discharge at voltages in the tens or hundreds of thousands of volts. Visible radiation affects only the outer electrons. Even X-rays, that are more tight, while working on the inner shell electrons, possess quantum energy that is usually insufficient to affect the nucleus.

(References: Зисман Г.А., Тодес О.М. Курс общей физики. Том III. Оптика. Физика атомов и молекул. Физика атомного ядра и микрочастиц (4-е издание). [Zisman, G.A., Todes, O.M. Course of General Physics. Vol. 3. Optics. Physics of atoms and molecules. Physics of atomic nucleus and micro particles (4th edition)]Moscow: Nauka, 1970 [In Russian]).

In order to understand the structure of the nucleus, so to say to "look inside" the atom, it was necessary to apply more effective methods of stronger effect. A solution was found - to hit nuclei by such particles that, on the one hand, are small enough to penetrate into the nucleus, but, on the other hand, possess sufficient energy to disintegrate the nucleus. The discovery of radioactivity, obtaining the products of radioactive disintegration facilitated the discovery of such particles, which were called alpha particles. According to the official history of physics, the first artificial nuclear reaction (artificial transformation of nuclei) was performed in 1919 by a British physicist Ernest Reserford during the hitting of nitrogen nuclei with alpha particles (positively charged particles which are formed by two protons and two neutrons, that is by the nucleus of geliy- 4). As a result of the collision of particles the nuclear reaction took place as follows:


 

Using the example of this reaction, further we will view the process of detailed calculation of the amount of the phantom Po particles in the nuclei of atoms. Due to the computation of the amount of phantom Po particles, it is also possible to accurately verify the results of any nuclear reaction and to calculate, in a whole, the outcome of any nuclear transformations.


 

A nuclear reaction is a process during which atomic nuclei undergo transformation as a result of their interaction with elementary particles, nuclei of other atoms (in the present case under the name of atom the smallest part of a chemical element is meant). This process is accompanied by corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation. The sum of the charges and mass numbers of the original maternal nucleus and a particle that interacts with them is equal to the sum of the charges and the mass numbers of the newly formed nucleus and the particles produced by the reaction. In nature, the nuclear reactions occur under particular conditions. For example, according to the contemporary concepts, fusion reactions can occur naturally in the interior of stars and at a temperature of several million degrees. On Earth, the nuclear reactions often take place in the atmosphere and the lithosphere due to cosmic radiation and the activity of nuclear-active particles in the upper spheres of the Earth (the thermosphere and exosphere).

Today`s artificial nuclear reactions that are carried out by man, are conducted using a particular equipment. For example, some facilities (for instance, the particle accelerators) allow a so-called "hitting" of the nuclei of some elements by the nuclei of other elements or by speedy/rapid elementary particles. In this way, changes that take place in the nuclei are identified and elementary particles that are produced following this process.
The results of nuclear transformations are recorded in special formulas, that denote the nuclei of atoms which were involved in the reaction and which nuclei were produced as a result of it.

References: Широков Ю.М., Юдин Н.П. Ядерная физика (2-е изд.)[Shirokov, U.M., Udin, N.P. Nuclear physics (2nd edition)] Moscow: Nauka, 1980 [In Russian]; Заборенко К. Б. Метод радиоактивных индикаторов в химии: учебное пособие для хим. спец. вузов [Zaborenko, K.B. Method of radioactive indicators in chemistry: study guide for higher educational institutions specializing in chemistry] Moscow: Vysshaya shkola., 1964 [In Russian]; Mlađenović, Milorad. The History of Early Nuclear Physics (1896- 1931). World Scientific, 1992.


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