Elementary particles



Since the 19th century, science of our modern civilization started to use the altered concept of atom as of the smallest part of a chemical element. In 1897, thanks to English physicist Joseph John Thomson (1856‒1940), who established that cathode rays are formed by a stream of the smallest particles, ELECTRON was discovered ‒ a carrier of negative elementary electric charge in atoms. In 1919 English physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871‒1937) as a result of research of nuclear disintegration, PROTON was discovered ‒ an elementary particle with a positive charge. In 1932 English physicist James Chadwick (1891‒1974) during his research of interaction of alpha particles with beryllium discovered NEUTRON ‒ an elementary particle being a part of an atomic nucleus, having the weight close to that of proton, but no electric charge.However, in modern science there are still unsolved questions concerning the description of the internal structure of atomic nucleus.

 

The assumption that inside electromagnetic field there is a PHOTON was described in 1900 in works of German physicist-theorist, founder of quantum physics Max Planck. In 1905 Albert Einstein, developing Planck's idea, postulated that electromagnetic radiation (light) is nothing other but a stream of separate quants (photons). And the direct experimental evidence of existence of photon was already obtained by American physicists in 1912‒1915 Robert Millikan (1868‒1953) and in 1922 Arthur Compton (1892‒1962). In 1930 Swiss physicist Wolfgang Pauli (Wolfgang Pauli; 1900‒1958) postulated the existence of an elementary particle which almost does not interact with substance, and then in the mid-1950s American physicists Frederick Reines (1918‒1998) and Clyde Cowen (1919‒1974) experimentally confirmed the existence of a neutral stable particle ‒ NEUTRINO.

 

Since 1930 and almost to the beginning of the 1950s, the research of elementary particles was closely connected with the research of space rays. Since 1950s and till today, accelerators have been the main tool in physics for the research of elementary particles, while new elementary particles that emerge during collision of accelerated protons and electrons with a substance have become the object of studies. Since that time a lot of different particles have been discovered, including unstable elementary particles, and also the extremely unstable, which received the name "resonances" (for example, in 1953 the first of them was discovered - D1 (1232)), heavy antiparticles (antiproton (1955), anti-neutrino (1956), anti-Sigma- hyperons (1960)) and so on.

 

The variety of properties of discovered particles was unexpected for scientists. In study of this issue, along with such characteristics as electric charge, the moment of momentum (angular momentum) and so on, they had to add also such characteristics as "strangeness", "charm", etc. It became clear that the world of elementary particles in its laws, properties, behavior is much different from traditional views about it, based on the ideas of classical physics.

 


 



Today an important discovery in the field of particle physics and high energy physics is considered to be one of results received in the European Center of Nuclear Researches (CERN) with the help of special installation ‒ an accelerator of charged particles in colliding beams (Large Hadron Collider). Scientists have discovered a particle presumably similar to Higgs boson (boson was predicted by English physicist Peter Higgs (1929); according to the theory, it should have final mass and have no spin). Actually, what scientists have found is not the Higgs boson. But these people, without realizing that yet, made a really important discovery and found much more. They experimentally discovered the phenomenon which is described in detail in the book "AllatRa" (Note: please refer to the book "AllatRa", p. 36 last paragraph).


 

Nowadays physicists only complicate conditions of external observation, but so far they have no opportunity to observe subtle processes and understand regularities, occurring within the system of the microcosm. For a consumer society such riding around the bush ‒ is a natural process. After all, scientists are compelled to survive in literal sense in such egoistical community, applying their talent not for advantage of humanity, but for satisfaction of someone's ambitions, studying physics only in a limited framework of allowed conceptions. Therefore, modern "high energy physics" in consumer society can be figuratively compared to an impressing installation for ignorant viewer (it’s financier), which, in fact, splits up big stones in pieces (which are called elementary particles. But, splitting up such a conglomerate, it is impossible to understand the essence of creation of sand grains. 


 

Today many physicists, who did not remain indifferent to problems of society, try to come back again to the initial moment experimentally, to that direct way which their predecessors left. They understand that because of climatic situation on Earth, connected with global natural changes, for the survival of human civilization we need a qualitatively new fundamental breakthrough in physics, methods of producing free energy regardless of external conditions and existence of natural resources.


 

Summing up the result above, we can say that with era of new modern discoveries the keyhole of the door into microcosm, which makes a basis of the macrocosm of all Universe, was just slightly opened. But all this turned out to be limited to a small amount of phenomena observed in the microcsm. Having the universal keys of the PRIMORDIAL ALLATRA PHYSICS it is possible not only to open widely the door to the invisible world, but also to enter it, to get in touch with its source. In order to understand the laws of interaction of the microcosm, we need a radical revision of many traditional concepts and views, a qualitatively new view on physics. The PRIMORDIAL ALLATRA PHYSICS not only opens a prospect of an absolutely different vision of physical phenomena in the microcosm, but also gives its fundamental bases and laws of interactions.


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