Atoms

The doctrine of the Great Emptiness, discrete (intermittent) structure of matter, indivisible particles, was known to people in different epochs and cultures. In remote antiquity, it was integral and reflected spiritual and material principles of the world and man. The more this knowledge passed through a prism of consumer egoistical thinking, political and religious fanaticism, the more initial essence was lost, and distortion and misunderstanding in fundamental principles were brought in.

For example, in the East people know about indivisible particles from the earliest times. People had the view that the world consists of "Great emptiness", "Po grains" due to the spiritual knowledge that existed for thousands of years before the time, when, according to modern views, the "founder" of atomism, ancient Greek philosopher Democritus (apprx. 460 BC ‒ 370 BC) popularized in Greece the teaching, which was known in the East, about existence of the smallest invisible particles of which all surrounding subjects consist. Such fundamental indivisible particles were called atoms in ancient times. The ancient understanding of atom as the foundation of the Universe was qualitatively different from the modern understanding in which atom is only called the smallest part of chemical element. It is known that the Ancient Greek word "atomos" (Greek άτόμος) means literally "indivisible", that is, a particle which can not be divided into smaller parts. This concept came to Ancient Greece from the East.

For example, in Ancient India there was a word Atman (also Atma) to denote «one and indivisible». In Sanskrit, there is also such a concept as "anu". In Sanskrit the word "anu" ("atom") is a title of the supreme creator ‒ Brahma (the word "Brahma", translated from Sanskrit, means "sacred power, which gives effect"), which is said to be the smallest atom, as well as the unlimited, all-encompassing Universe, meaning that everything consists of it.

If we translate the word "Atman" (Atma) from one of the most ancient languages ‒ Sanskrit, it was initially used to denote concepts of non-material character: "the Soul, the divine essence, world’s spiritual nature, eternity". The concept of "Atma" was generally used in the theory explaining the structure of the whole world from macro - to micro objects.

 References: Философия: Энциклопедический словарь/ глав. ред. Ивин А.А. [Philosophy: Encyclopedic Dictionary/ head editor – A.A. Ivin] Moscow, Gardariki, 2004 [In Russian]; Новая философская энцикло- педия: в 4 т./глав.ред. Степин В.С. [New Philosophical Encyclopedia: in 4 volumes/head editor – V.S. Stepin] Moscow: Mysl, 2000-2001[In Russian].

In Hinduism, Brahma is the unknowable principle of the Universe, from whose essence everything originates and everything comes back to it, eternal, without beginning and end. In the archaic forms, Brahma was also the initial highest god, who is responsible for acts of creation (rebirth) -‒ creation, preservation and destruction of material aspect of all things.

References: Философский энциклопедический словарь / глав. ред. Ильичёв Л. Ф., Федосеев П. Н., Ковалёв С. М., Панов В. Г. [Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary/ editors - L.F. Ilichev, P.N. Fedoseev, S.M. Kovalev, V.G. Panov] Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1983 [In Russian]; Новая философская эн- циклопедия: в 4 т./глав.ред. Степин В.С. [New Philosophical Encyclopedia: in 4 volumes/head editor – V.S. Stepin] Moscow: Mysl, 2000-2001 [In Russian].

Ancient people of Mesopotamia (residents of Sumer and Babylonia) considered Anu the highest supreme god honored from the earliest times. Initially he was connected with the goddess Ki. In the East (India, China, Japan) there is a term "qi" which is still used to denote energy..

In India, the smallest parts of the Universe were called paramanu (in Sanskrit anu, paramanu mean "thinnest", "smallest") and were used as an understanding of what the minimal «building block of the Universe» is. In various schools of Indian thought, one can still find mentions that each paramanu contains characteristic qualities of all elements in an unmanifested form which emerge in the process of creation of material compounds ‒ skandhi. Translated from Sanskrit "skandha" (in the Pali language ‒ "khandha") means "heap", "bunch", "group", "unit" or, using modern language, ‒ "cluster". It was specified in ancient Indian doctrines that unique properties of these particles are their impenetrability and the superthinnest state, thanks to which they are able to go far and wide in the Universe. Unchangeable, inconceivable, indivisible particles formed temporary and perceptible objects. The basis of indivisible particles and their connection with each other is carried out by the force of non-material character. In one point of space there can be a large number of paramanu. (Note: see further in the report the information on real and phantom Po particles, the force of Allat).

Ancient Egypt. One of the most ancient gods of first-creation in Egyptian mythology has the name Atum (Ra-Atum). It is interesting that this word sounds like that according to interpretations of translators. In fact, we know only that in the ancient Egyptian language vowels were not reflected in written form, the word Atum was represented only by the signs of consonants. We know from mythology that Atum symbolized initial and eternal unity of all things, that he originated from himself, from primary chaos in the form of a snake. The image of a snake in motion, as a rule, in ancient times denoted a wave structure or a spiral. In the sacred book of ancient Egyptians which scientists nowadays conventionally named "Book of the Dead", in chapter 175, it is mentioned that Atum tells god Osiris about the end of the world, that all he had created, again he would destroy, and he himself again would turn into a snake. The creating hand of Atum is Iusaaset ("the greatest among those who comes"). It is one of the first ancient goddesses mentioned in Ancient Egyptian mythology, the foremother of all gods. She was identified with the sacred tree of Life and Death. In Ancient Egyptian art she was represented as a woman with the AllatRa sign (a circle and a half-moon).

References: Гладкий В.Д. Древний мир. Энциклопедический словарь. В 2-х томах. [Gladky, V. D. Ancient World. Encyclopedic Dictionary in 2 volumes] Moscow: Centropoligraf, 1998 [In Russian]; Hart, George. A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. London: Routledge, 2006.


Echoes of this ancient teaching which existed in the East can be found in different Indian literary books including such collection as "Vaysheshikasutra" where there is a mention about an extremely small particle which has a spherical form (parimandalya) and which is a constant unchangeable first cause of things, the carrier of "final distinctions", the substratum of constant qualities, the minimum size of substance of elements. According to the ancient teaching, all things consist of "nothing", and the limit of division of material things, the elementary part of the Universe is an atom. The combination of these smallest particles is matter. After proper familiarization with the report "PRIMORDIAL ALLATRA PHYSICS" all this ancient knowledge will become quite clear, proved at the level of modern physics. Moreover, you will have an integral understanding of its essence; and all the contradictions, which were typical of different ancient schools of the East which studied this primordial knowledge, will disappear.

It is known that the ancient doctrine about atoms was popularized in the West by Democritus and his adherents. For many years he traveled around the East and studied worldview and sacred knowledge of different nations. He lived in India, Babylon, Persia which had the thousandyear wealth of experience of spiritual heritage of human civilization, including the concepts about the world structure and man, about the Earth, about distant stars, the Great emptiness and the Universe. Democritus had been to the east of Africa ‒ in Ethiopia, lived in Egypt, in this treasury of ancient scientific and spiritual knowledge of Ancient Egyptian civilization. He spoke with Egyptian priests ‒ the guardians of secrets of ancient manuscripts. It is not surprising that the worldview of this person reflected his own understanding of echoes of the ancient knowledge obtained during his journey around the East. And if we take into account the errors of translation, information which was passed through the prism of traditional thinking and peculiarities of Western culture, it is possible to understand why with time this ancient knowledge was even more distorted. And nevertheless…

In this doctrine, atoms were considered as the initial, "smallest indivisible, impenetrable, non-vanishing, non-arising, invariable, not comprising of emptiness".

According to the views of ancient Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, there are only atoms and emptiness: "Throughout the world, the divine substance of peculiar atoms of the finest properties is spread"; "… particles of this substance, which is spread in the air"; " only indivisible (atoms) and empty space applies to the truth".

References: Reallexikon des klassischen Altertums [Encyclopaedia of Classical Antiquity] editors – Friedrich Lübker, J. Geffken, E. Ziebart ‒ Leipzig: Teubner, 1914.

"Atomists thought that collisions of atoms in the void generated a whirlwind which was the beginning of the world formation. Thinking was interpreted as a result of certain movements of atoms".

References: Словарь античности/ глав. ред. Ирмшер Й., Йоне Р. Пер. с нем. [Dictionary of Antiquity/ head editor – J.Irmscher, R. Jone, translated from German] Мoscow: Progress, 1989 [In Russian]

The knowledge borrowed by Democritus from ancient spiritual teachings of the East (about the Great emptiness and indivisible particle which possesses true life, not destroying and not arising), was processed by him in the teaching «atomistic materialism»:

· The beginning of the Universe was atoms and the void, all the rest exists only in opinion.
· Only in the general opinion there exists sweet, by convention bitter, by convention warm, by convention cold, by convention color, whereas in reality there are only atoms and the void.
· There are initial causes, endless in number, but indivisible due to their too small size. These minimal initial bodies are atoms…
· Can different bodies consist of the same atoms? Yes, they can. As different books are written with the same letters.
· Atoms are the substances which are not interacting upon others and are resistant to influence. Disseminated in emptiness when they approach each other or run up against each other, or engage with each other, then from these conglomerates of atoms one seems to be water, another ‒ fire, the third ‒ a plant, the fourth ‒ a man.
· In the initial chaos of atomic motions in the Great Emptiness … a whirlwind is formed.
· There is a countless number of worlds, they are various in size, appear from infinite emptiness, arise and die … In some worlds there is no Sun, no Moon, in others ‒ Sun and Moon are bigger, than ours, and some have more of them. The distances between worlds are not the same; moreover, in one place there are more worlds, and in another‒ less. Some worlds are growing, some are flourishing, and others are already declining. In one place worlds arise, in other ‒ disappear … Some worlds have no animals and plants and are completely deprived of moisture.
· There are two types of acquiring knowledge: one true, the other - dark. To the dark one belong all following types: sight
References: Таранов П.С. «120 философов: Жизнь. Судьба. Учение. Мысли»: Универсальный аналитический справочник по истории философии в 2 т. [Taranov, P.S. “120 philosophers: Life. Fate. Teaching. Thoughts”: Universal analytical reference book on history of philosophy in 2 volumes] Simferopol: Renome, 2005 [In Russian].


Today, for the new generation Democritus is described as the founder of atomism (the doctrine of discrete structure of matter) and materialistic philosophy, as they say, covering things up by this name and not going into the details of borrowing of ancient knowledge of the East by the West. As usually happens in such cases, they publicly state the "fact" that no work of this ancient scientist has remained so far, that there are only quotes and reviews of his ideas and works mentioned in works of later antique authors.


 

Anyway, the doctrine about indivisible particles, about discrete nature of matter continues to exist in different philosophical schools, both in the East, and already in the West, where everyone interpreted it in his own way. For example, in the East in the VII-IX centuries, the doctrine of indivisible particles, the structure of matter, space and time was known in Arabian and Muslim world due to mutakallimūn. In the West, atomism can be found in the works of ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, Roman philosopher Titus Lucretius Kara, in the doctrine about homoioméreia (from the Greek word "ὅμοιος" ‒ "similar", "μέρος" ‒ "part") of ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer Anaxagoras, ancient Greek representative of naturalistic philosophy Archelaus, in the doctrine of Greek philosopher Diodorus Crohn, or to be more exact, mathematic version of atomism, in the doctrine about triangles of ancient Greek philosopher Platon and so on. Everyone dealing with this issue considered it necessary to call it his teaching, to bring there his understanding from the mind, often mistaken. Consequently, such distorted heritage led future generations into the world of illusions and deceptions, thereby forming science of observing external manifestations without the understanding of internal essence of processes which take place.


 

In the XVI century English philosopher ("the father of English materialism"), influential politician, Lord Chancellor Francis Bacon (1561‒1626), relying on Democritus's ideas, brought even more distortions in the essence of this knowledge. He presented matter as active and indestructible, believing that there are no matter "bricks", that its divisibility, in his opinion, has to be infinite. In fact, even in determining the goals of science, that man reflected his selfish ambitions. He considered that the purpose of science is to increase the power of man over nature, as soulless material, which has to be used by man. Such expressions ‒ not news to anyone who knows history of world politics and knows how, behind the scenes, at the world's political kitchen, they are preparing real political events and political "dishes" of deception for people. It is not surprising that some politicians still believe that their electorate, i.e. people, is a soulless biomass.


 

There were also other people who spread this knowledge, based on their understanding and perception of the world. For example, in the XVII century it was Pierre Gassendi (1592‒1655), French philosopher, priest of Roman church, professor who worked in the field of history (research of ancient texts), mathematics, astronomy, and mechanics. His works on atomic theory are, in fact, just retelling of atomism of Epicurus mixed with his understanding, typical of standard theological views generally accepted in that region and era. Gassendi introduced for the West the concept of molecule (the Latin word "moles" means "mass", with a diminutive suffix of "cula" ‒ "the small mass, a particle") as small mass, primary combination of atoms which acquired new properties. It should be noted that in the Middle Ages the language of science in the West (language of theologians, lawyers, physicians) was considered to be Latin, therefore all scientific terminology, in fact, was Latinized. Taking into account that the word "atom" was considered to be of Greek origin, it was withdrawn from usage and replaced by Latin "corpuscle", meaning "part", "little body" ("corpusculum", diminutive term of Latin word "corpus" - "a little body, a particle, a tiny little body"). This term denoted the smallest particle of matter or aether. So in the XVII-XVIII centuries in natural-science systems, atomistic (corpuscular) theories appear. According to corpuscular philosophy of Gassendi, atoms represent infinitely small, subtle, indestructible particles which make up all bodies. Between them there is an empty space, atoms influence each other, move and move again, combine in structures ‒ molecules. He believed that atoms ‒ the base of all things ‒ are created by God, and even light and warmth consist of atoms.

During this era, there was a whole group of scientists who studied ancient information about the smallest indivisible particles and discreetness of matter, relying on them in their explanations of world picture. They admired them, criticized. But these arguments about their own understanding of this ancient knowledge, one way or another, found reflection in their works. For example, such scientists as: Italian physicist, astronomer, philosopher and mathematician Galileo Galilei (1564‒1642); Italian monk, philosopher Giordano Bruno (1548‒1600); French philosopher, physicist, mathematician René Descartes (1596‒1650); Dutch astronomer, physicist, mathematician Christiaan Huygens (1629‒1695), whose student was a German philosopher, physicist, mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646‒1716); English physicist Isaac Newton ( 1643‒1727); Irish chemist, theologian Robert Boyle (1627‒1691) and many others. It is natural that new generations, which came after them, studying their works, again continued to research the information on indivisible particles, but already in accordance with generally accepted views and worldview of the epoch of that generation. The works of Leibniz influenced many German scientists, among whom there was also German scholar and lexicographer, mathematician Christian Wolf (Christian Freiherr von Wolff; 1679‒1754). In his time at young age, future Russian scientist- lexicographer of world importance, physics, chemist, mineralogist Mikhail Lomonosov (Михаил Васильевич Ломоносов; 1711‒1765) attended a course of this scholar while acquiring additional education in Europe.



Under the influence of works of different scientists, including Robert Boyle, Mikhail Lomonosov created the molecular-kinetic theory of heat, the atomic-kinetic conception about discrete structure of matter and the smallest indivisible particles which he called in his works "elements". In his thesis "Elements of Mathematical Chemistry", he writes: "An element is a part of a body that does not consist of any other smaller and different bodies … corpuscle is a collection of elements forming one small mass." He described in his works the same ancient knowledge, but it was his interpretation, based on his understanding. For example, there was a mention about the principle of conservation of force (energy) that all substances consist of corpuscles ‒ molecules, which in their turn are "collections" of elements, i.e. atoms. Atoms are spherical rotating particles. In his works we can find the same ancient knowledge that one of the fundamental principles of the Universe is rotating movement (Note: for information about spiral movement, please refer to the book "AllatRa").. Modern scientists write about him, "he was at the beginning of general law of nature and laid the foundation of picture of natural sciences in the XIX century", "his works in many ways anticipated the fundamental laws discovered much later and modern view of discrete structure of matter".

So, why does today’s humanity know atom not as a fundamental indivisible (structureless) particle of matter, but just as the smallest particle of a chemical element, preserving the properties of such an element? Today in the history of modern science, it is considered that it was John Dalton (1766‒1844), British chemist, physicist, scientist, one of famous scientists of the early XIX century, who revived atomism and fundamentally introduced into science the concept of atom. In fact, this person, while knowing about the ancient concept of indivisible parts ‒ atoms, to a great extеnt distorted the remains of the ancient teaching and the concept of atom as such for future generations. In modern sense, this distortion is the same as if we take terms of high energy physics (the concepts of invisible bosons, their integer spins) and use these concepts to explain the structure of visible ordinary chemical compounds because of the lack of understanding of their essence and functions. For example, take a chemical compound of water (H2O) as quite tangible substance and give such a definition that oxygen now and forever will have such a name as "boson", and let hydrogen be called "spin". That is, obvious misunderstanding of ancient knowledge and attempt to apply the knowledge of invisible fundamental processes to quite tangible phenomena.

So did John Dalton. He tried to explain chemistry with the help of ancient atomistic views. It is not surprising that in his conception there were many contradictions. For example, in his work "New System of Chemical Philosophy" (1808), he gave such a definition: "Atoms are chemical elements which cannot be recreated or divided into smaller particles or destroyed by any chemical transformations. Any chemical reaction just changes the order of atoms arrangement". He began to consider chemical reactions as processes of connection and separation of atoms to explain abrupt changes of structure when one compound transforms into another. He introduced the concept of "atomic weight", taking for unit the atomic weight of hydrogen, offered the system of chemical symbols for "simple and complex atoms" and so on.

On the one hand, thanks to his works, Dalton pushed science towards development of theoretical chemistry and creation of chemical industry. On the other hand, his definitions of atom which were later generally accepted by society, distorted the understanding of the essence of fundamental indivisible particle of matter. When in the 19th century it became clear that "chemical atoms" could be divided into smaller elementary particles, it led to the fact that future generations neglected this "primitive knowledge" of antiquity and started treating it as philosophy which has nothing to do with exact sciences. But the case is not even in this scientist. When we understand how and why, at the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century, the ancient concepts of "atom", "aether" (as the concept connected with free energy) were distorted and discredited, cutting off at once the desires of future generations to go deeply into the history of this issue, it becomes quite obvious, why it was done and why now science came to the deadlock on the most important questions of physics of high energies, concerning studying of the latest physics of macro- and a microcosm.

At the end of 19th ‒ the beginning of the 20th centuries, a whole range of major discoveries were made by scientists, who during their scientific career still studied works of the past and were familiar with atomistic conception of ancient times. Among them are discovery of the periodic law of chemical elements which was made in 1869 by the outstanding Russian scientist- encyclopedist, chemist, physicist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev (Дмитрий Иванович Менделеев; 1834‒1907), and the proofs of famous German physicist-theorist, founder of quantum physics Max Planck (1858‒1947) that the radiation and absorption of energy have discrete character (1900) and so on. People use these discoveries up to this day. However, today humanity came already to such a level of science in studying the microcosm that these discoveries based on external observation do not give the understanding of processes occurring within the system which they study. New fundamental discoveries now are extremely lacking the primordial knowledge of antiquity which is partially given, analyzed from the perspective of modern physical concepts in this report.



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